Health Concerns - Neurological Disorders

neurological disorders
What are Neurological Disorders?

Neurological disorders are diseases of the central and peripheral nervous system i.e. the brain, spinal cord, cranial nerves, peripheral nerves, nerve roots, autonomic nervous system, neuromuscular junction and muscles.


A person's quality of life can be greatly altered by a brain or spinal cord injury, which may affect their mobility and cognitive functions. Any change in the nervous system can produce new challenges. A person may have difficulty in moving, swallowing, speaking and breathing. Their memory, senses and mood can be impacted. Control over the bladder and bowel functions may also be affected. Due to weakness and inability, a patient's quality of life deteriorates and this makes them dependent on others for their basic needs.


According to the World Health Organization (WHO), millions of people worldwide are affected by neurological disorders. Approximately 6.2 million people die because of stroke each year. Over 80% of deaths occur in low- and middle-income countries.

Incidence of spinal cord injuries leading to complete or partial paralysis is also on the rise globally, mainly due to road traffic accidents. More than 50 million people have epilepsy worldwide. It is estimated that there are 35.6 million people worldwide with dementia with 7.7 million new cases every year. Alzheimer's disease is the most common cause of dementia and may contribute to 60–70% of cases.

Main Symptoms of Neurological Disorders:
  • Poor co-ordination
  • Tightness in muscles i.e. Spasticity, rigidity
  • Pain in different parts of the body/ Thalamic Pain Syndrome
  • Seizures
  • Loss of sensation
  • Muscle weakness
  • Altered level of consciousness i.e. comatose & disoriented patients
  • Altered bladder and bowel functions
  • Lack of balance
  • Walking abnormalities
Major disorders:

There are several neurological disorders, the most common are:

neurological disorders
  • Stroke
  • Traumatic brain injury
  • Spinal cord Injury
  • Parkinson's disease
  • Alzheimer's disease
  • Multiple sclerosis
  • Neuromuscular diseases such as Guillain-Barre Syndrome (GBS)
  • Vestibular disorders
  • Muscular dystrophy
  • Spina bifida
  • Nerve palsies
  • Paediatric neurological diseases like Delayed milestone, Cerebral Palsy, autism, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

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